Connectors for electric vehicle (EV) charging are both standardized and constantly changing. On the one hand, EV charging connector has been standardized according to today's technical limitations. There are standards in major regional markets, including North America, Japan, the European Union and China. However, the current charging technology has limited power. This FAQ first reviews the standardized status of EV charger connectors, and then introduces connectors for higher power and faster charging technologies.
Connector: DC extreme speed charging (XFC) is an emerging technology, which can rapidly charge electric vehicles with 350kW or higher power. This is good, but it also presents challenges, including effective thermal management. The DC fast charger relies on larger conductors to help minimize IR loss and heat generation. If not properly designed, cables and connectors can become bulky, hot, and difficult to handle.
EV charger connectors have been regionally standardized to support current charging technologies. In the future, AC charging Level 1 and Level 2 connectors are expected to continue to be used. However, to obtain higher power DC charging to support XFC and other technologies, the connector technology needs to be changed. An ongoing proposal is to add liquid cooling to cables and connectors to enable existing DC fast charging connector formats to support higher power levels without overheating. In addition, SAE recently introduced the J3105 standard that defines the charging interface of heavy vehicles.
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